In the text, references are always formatted as (name of author(s), date), and are placed as close to the point of reference as possible. If citing a direct quote, (name of author(s), date, p. or p.-p.) is placed immediately after the quote. There are some exceptions (such as for a long quote).
The following information is for references included in the Reference List.
A Reference List includes an entry for every reference cited in the text.
A Bibliography includes more entries (to demonstrate how much you have read).
For most assignments you are expected to prepare a Reference List.
- For a book with a single author:
Name, Initial (Date). Title in lower case except for proper nouns: Either bolded, underlined or italicized (not all three). City of publication: Publisher. Cranton, P. (1994). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Note: The entries in the Reference List are formatted using a Hanging Paragraph.
Note: If the city is relatively well-known, you do not need to add the state or province. If the city is relatively unknown, add the state or province using the post office’s two letter abbreviation without periods.
Note: New York is the city; NY is the state.
- For a book with two or three authors:
In the text: All authors must be cited every time – no use of et al.
In the Ref. List: Name, Initial, & Name, Initial (Date). Title of book. City of publication: Publisher
- For a book with four to six authors:
In the text: all authors must be cited the first time; then you can use et al.
In the Ref. List: All authors are listed.
For a book with more than six authors:
In the text: you can cite First author et al the first time
In the Ref. List: All authors are listed
If an author or group of authors has more than one Ref. List entry for the same year, the entries must be distinguished by a, b, c, etc. added to the date. The same letter distinctions must appear in the text. The order of such entries is determined by the alphabetical order of the book or article titles.
- For a collection of articles in one book:
In the text: Name of author of chapter or article, date.
In the Ref. List: First cite the name of author and his/her chapter; then the names of the editors (followed by Ed. or Eds.) and the name of the book. (Then the inclusive page numbers of the chapter). City of Publication: Publisher
Thomas, A.M. (1998) Learning our way out. In S.M. Scott, B. Spencer & A.M. Thomas Eds.), Learning for life: Canadian readings in adult education (pp. 354-364). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.
Note: Ed is for editor; ed. is for edition. If the book is a second edition, put (2nd ed.) in brackets after the title of the book.
- More than one author, use same rules as for the authors of a textbook.
- For an article in a journal or magazine:
In text: Name of author, date
In Ref. List: Name of author, Initial. (date). Name of article (lower case, no bolding, underlining or italicizing). Name of Journal (Upper Case, italics, bold or underlined), Vol. #, (issue #), pp.-pp.
Manglitz, E. (2003) Challenging the white privilege of adult education: A critical review of the literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 53, (2), 119-134.
Hebb, D.O. (1978) On watching myself get older. Psychology Today, November, 15-23.
Note: For more than one author, same rules as for textbooks.