- Follow the guidelines given for formatting of your essay. e.g. produce a typewritten, legible document and use correct paragraph spacing and appropriate font.
- Always check your spelling. Incorrect spelling may lose you marks. Use a dictionary or the spell check function on your PC and aim to have someone proofread your essay.
- Check you have gone through all the necessary processes in the preparation of your essay. (See checklist at the end of this section).
- Use linking words to connect the ideas and arguments in your sentences and paragraphs.
Here are some words you might use to:
Additionally, again, along with, also, and, another, as well as, besides, equally, for example, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover, secondly, together with.
Conclude or summarise
Accordingly, all in all, as a result, consequently, due to, finally, in conclusion, in short, in summary, therefore, to sum up.
Contrast two things or show a difference
Alternatively, as opposed to, but, conversely, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, otherwise, yet.
Emphasise a point
Again, as demonstrated, as highlighted, as shown, clearly, for this reason, in addition, indeed, in fact, specifically, to emphasise.
Again, comparatively, in parallel, in the same way, likewise, in the same manner, similarly.
Defined as, differently, in other words, likewise, put another way, to clarify, to restate, viewed as.
Sequence your argument
Before, finally, firstly, immediately, initially, in parallel, later, prior to, in the same manner, secondly, subsequently, to conclude with.
It would help you to become familiar with the vocabulary of ‘analysis’ and ‘research writing’. For example;
|Term||Another way of saying|
|Account for||Give reasons for, provide a thorough explanation.|
|Analyze||Find the main ideas and show how they are related and why they are important.|
|Comment on||Discuss, criticise or explain its meaning as completely as possible.|
|Compare||Look for similarities/differences and perhaps reach a conclusion about which is preferable.|
|Contrast||Set in opposition in order to bring out differences.|
|Criticise||Give your judgement about the merit of theories and opinions, or about the truth of facts; support your judgement by a discussion of evidence or of the reasoning involved.|
|Define||Set down the precise meaning of a word or phrase; in some cases it may be necessary or desirable to examine different possibilities for often used definitions.|
|Describe||Give a detailed or graphic account.|
|Discuss||Investigate or examine by argument; sift information and debate; give reasons for and against.|
|Enumerate||Name and list the main ideas one by one. Number them.|
|Evaluate||Make an appraisal of the worth of something.|
|Explain||Make plain; interpret and account for; give reasons.|
|Illustrate||Use a figure or diagram to explain or clarify, or make clear by the use of concrete examples.|
|Interpret||Explain in detail the meaning of; make clear and explicit, usually giving your judgement also.|
|Justify||Give a statement of why you think it is so. Give reasons for your statement and conclusion.|
|Outline||Give a general summary. It should contain a series of main ideas supported by secondary ideas. Leave out minor details and examples.|
|Prove||Show by argument or logic that it is true.|
|Relate||Show the connections between things, telling how one causes or is like another.|
|Review||Provide a summary of the important issues and criticise where needed. State Describe the main points in precise terms. Be formal. Use brief, clear sentences. Leave out details and examples.|
|State||State Describe the main points in precise terms. Be formal. Use brief, clear|
|Summarise||Give a brief condensed account of the main ideas. Leave out details and examples.|
|Trace||Follow the progress or history of the subject.|